Chapter 12 Review

Video Review

Key Concept Summary

TA Summary


Force that pushes the edges of an object in different directions.
A spectrum that contains only a few lines of separate, distinct colors.
A force that pushes all of the edges of an object in towards its center.
A physical state of matter that is characterized by rigidity and resistance to changes in size and shape.
A physical state of matter characterized by fluid properties but in which positive and negative charges move independently.
A material that is a non-conductor of electricity as a solid but that conducts electricity when melted or dissolved in water.
The whole range of frequencies of light (including "light" that is not visible).
A physical state of matter that readily changes both shape and volume to match its container.
A substance that readily allows an electric current to flow through it.
A force that stretches material.
A characteristic of matter associated with the light reflected off the matter to an observer.
A physical state of matter that readily changes shape to match its container but that resists changes in volume.
A spectrum in which the colors blend gradually together without noticeable abrupt changes or missing colors.
Mass per unit of volume of a substance.
A substance that does not readily allow electric current to flow through it.


Solids are the densest state of matter and gases are the least dense.
The continuous spectrum consists of separate, distinct colors that blend without any abrupt changes or missing colors.
All materials become plasma if heated to a high enough temperature.
Gold's physical state is always a solid.
Liquids assume the shape of their container.
All materials fall cleanly into the categories of solid, liquid, gas, or plasma.
All matter melts at 0 degrees C (32 degrees F) and boils at 100 degrees C (212 degrees F).


Which of the following processes does not produce a change in states?
Which of the following is not a fluid?
Neither sugar nor salt conduct electricity when they are in the solid state. Salt, however, does conduct electricity as a liquid while sugar does not. In classifying these materials we say that
Which of the following can sustain shear forces?
Which of the following materials is most dense in its liquid state (see Table 12.1)?
If you keep increasing the temperature of matter it eventually becomes:
What state of matter can withstand shear forces?
Which state of matter is always a conductor of electricity?
With few exceptions, which state of matter has the highest density?
The large differences in the characteristics of diamond and pencil lead (graphite) can be explained by:
The hexagonal shape of snowflakes can best be explained by:

Free Response

  1. Which has greater density, an ice cube or an iceberg?
  2. Describe what is meant by “plasma” and give an example of plasma that occurs in nature.
  3. Show, in a sketch, how compression, tension, and shear forces can be applied to a material.
  4. Why is tap water a conductor while pure water is not?
  5. You have five solid metal cubes of the same volume (1 cm3). The mass of each cube is given in the following table:
    Gold Iron Nickel Platinum Zinc
    19.3 7.86 8.9 21.5 7.14
    Refer to the table and figure to answer the following questions:

    Suppose you carefully poured each of the liquids into a container so that no mixing took place. With reference to the figure below, what substance would be liquid 2?


    Olive Oil

    0.9 g/cm3

    Sea Water

    1.03 g/cm3


    13.6 g/cm3



    2.7 g/cm3


    .95 g/cm3

  6. If you dropped a small solid wooden ball made of oak and an aluminum ball of the same size into the container, again doing it carefully to minimize mixing of the liquid layers, where would you find each ball?
  7. Choose five materials and list them in order of increasing density.
  8. List and briefly describe the different characteristics used to classify matter. With each category of characteristics give examples of matter that demonstrate those characteristics.
  9. You exert forces on many objects while doing many activities. In the following activities, which kind(s) of force is(are) being applied?
    • Tearing a piece of paper in half
    • Pushing a thumbtack into a bulletin board
    • Pulling taffy
    • Using an electric beater to mix cake batter
  10. Dad is baking bread and kneading it with his hands.
    • If he presses straight down on the dough as shown by the arrows in the figure, what kind of force is present?
    • If he kneads the bread by pushing down and then pushing outward, what forces are present? In the outward push, the dough is both rotated and stretched.
  11. Many of the streetlamps you see along a highway use the light from gaseous sodium. Based on Figure 12.8 in the textbook, would you expect the light from these lamps to be pure white? If not, what color of light might you expect to come from them? (Remember that pure white light comes from a balance of all the colors of the rainbow.)
  12. Why would an object look different when illuminated by a mercury vapor lamp than when seen under sunlight? (See Figure 12.8 in the textbook for the colors of light given off by such a lamp.)
  13. The liquid-solid change of state for water occurs with an important difference from most other matter. What is this difference and why is it important for life on Earth?
  14. Summarize what observations you have made from Table 12.1 in the textbook by answering the following questions:
    • For most types of matter, what sequence of states corresponds to increasing density?
    • For a given type of matter, which has the higher temperature: melting or boiling?
    • If a material has a low melting temperature, what can you predict about its boiling temperature?
    • Do metals (copper and gold) and salts (table salt and magnesium oxide) have high or low melting temperatures?
  15. Samples recovered from a space mission to the moon included a specimen that had a melting temperature higher than 1000° C. The specimen conducts electricity only when in the liquid state. Which group of materials would you expect this specimen to be most like?
    a. salts such as table salt sodium chloride;
    b. metals such as copper and iron; or
    c. ethanol and water
    • Explain your answer.
  16. The continuous model is very simple and qualitative. It simply says that matter has no internal structure; we can subdivide solids, liquids, and gases into smaller and smaller masses of each, but the properties say the same. What are some deficiencies of this model?