Chapter 17 Review

Video Review

Key Concept Summary

TA Summary

errata: 1. The arrows point the the LARGEST volume and ionization energy. The TA misspoke and said "smallest" volume. 2. Columns are known as either groups or families. Rows are known as periods.


Good electrical and thermal conductors that can usually be hammered into thin sheets or drawn into fine wires.
Properties associated with the reactivity of a material.
Elements that occur in the same row of the Periodic Table.
Elements that do not conduct electricity.
The science of matter and the transformations that it can undergo to form new or different types of matter.
Properties like melting or boiling temperature, density, and color.
A kind of matter that contains atoms that all have the same number of protons in their nuclei.
Elements in the periodic table which are placed in the same column and have similar chemical properties.
Electrons that are in the outermost, usually unfilled shell of an atom.
Two or more atoms of different elements that are joined together in fixed ratios.


Selenium (atomic number 34) has 3 valence electrons.
Dmitri Mendeleyev is referred to as the father of the Periodic Table of elements.
Elements that have similar chemical properties are categorized into periods.
Elements with atomic numbers heavier than 92 (uranium) are all man-made elements.
Carbon, silicon, and lead belong to the same family.
Br (atomic number 35) has five valence electrons.
Within a given period, metals have higher ionization energies than non-metals do.
According to the quantum model of the atom, the valence electrons of an atom are buried deep inside the atom.


Use the periodic table to list the atoms Br As Ca (bromine, arsenic, calcium) in order of increasing diameter (largest last).
List the following atoms in order of increasing volume: nitrogen, oxygen, and phosphorus.
List Fe, Rh, and Pt in order of increasing density. (They all have about the same diameter.)
Which atom has the lowest ionization energy?
Which of the following statements is false?
The ionization energy is the amount of energy needed to do what to an atom?
On which side of the periodic table are non-metals found?
Why do elements in the same column of the periodic table react in similar ways?
When you compare the ionization energies of K, Ca, and Ar which of the following is the least likely to give away an electron?
Which of these is a collection of elements that shares a set of similar chemical and physical properties?

Free Response

  1. Describe what advance Mendeleev made to the scientific method by predicting the existence of new elements.
  2. The valence electrons of an element have the electron configuration 6s26p6. Identify the element and make a prediction about a) its physical state at room temperature (solid, liquid, gas) and b) its tendency to react with other elements.
  3. Write the electron configuration for Calcium (atomic number 20) and for Strontium (atomic number 38). Calcium is important for healthy, strong bones. Strontium is found in the fallout from nuclear explosions. Explain why strontium might be expected to be incorporated into bones along with calcium.
  4. Suppose you had three identical test tubes and each one contained a different element, but the same number of atoms. In one tube you had sodium atoms (atomic number 11), in another one you had chromium atoms (atomic number 24) and in the third tube you had mercury (atomic number 80). Which test tube would weigh the most?
  5. Refer to Figure 17.7 in the textbook, and decide which of the two elements will have a higher density: potassium (element 19) or calcium (element 20). Use the following questions to guide your thinking: What is the definition of density? Which element has the more massive type of atoms? Which element has the smaller volume?
  6. Potassium contains a total of 19 electrons. If the atomic orbital diagram of Figure 17.9 in the textbook were correct, how many valence electrons would you expect potassium to have? How many valence electrons does the revised set of levels in Figure 17.11 in the textbook predict?
  7. The melting temperatures of the metallic elements of Group 1A are given in the table.
    Element in Group 1A Melting Temperature
    Lithium 180.54 °C
    Sodium 97.72 °C
    Potassium 63.38 °C
    Rubidium 39.31 °C
    Cesium 28.44 °C
    What trend in melting temperature do you observe as you go down the column?
  8. Refer to Figures 17.7 and 17.8 in the textbook and determine the trend in atomic volume and ionization energy as you go down the column for these elements.
  9. Which of the two properties (volumes or ionization energies) shows the same trend as the melting points?
  10. Think back to our hypotheses of Chapter 12 regarding melting points (see p. 150). Given those hypotheses, what would you predict about the forces that hold atoms of cesium together in the solid metal compared to the forces that hold atoms of lithium together?
  11. The quantum model of the atom offers some insights into the trends in atomic size (Figure 17.7 in the textbook). Consider the following questions and state some observations we can make by comparing the theory with experiment. What type of electron configuration is associated with the largest atomic volumes in a given period? As the n designation of an element’s valence electron increases (e.g., 1s1, 2s1, 3s1 etc), what happens to the atomic size of that element?
  12. The trend in ionization energy as you go down Group 1A can be explained, qualitatively at least, by the electric force law. Why does it get easier to pull away a valence 6s electron than a valence 3s electron? Hint: which electron is further away from the nucleus, on average?